Readings adaptation Adaptation, as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary, has a plurality of meanings and applications, most of which allude to the process of changing to suit an alternative purpose, function, or environment; the alteration of one thing to suit another.
History of evolutionary thought Adaptation is an observable fact of life accepted by philosophers and natural historians from ancient times, independently of their views on evolutionbut their explanations differed.
In natural theologyadaptation was interpreted as the work of a deity and as evidence for the existence of God. Pangloss  is a parody of this optimistic idea, and David Hume also argued against design. The series was lampooned by Robert Knoxwho held quasi-evolutionary views, as the Bilgewater Treatises.
Charles Darwin broke with the tradition by emphasising the flaws and limitations which occurred in the animal and plant worlds. This illustrates the real merit of Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallaceand secondary figures such as Henry Walter Batesfor putting forward a mechanism whose significance had only been glimpsed previously.
A century later, experimental field studies and breeding experiments by people such as E. Ford and Theodosius Dobzhansky produced evidence that natural selection was not only the 'engine' behind adaptation, but was a much stronger force than had previously been thought.
The Modern Synthesis  What adaptation is[ edit ] Adaptation is primarily a process rather than a physical form or part of a body. From this we see that adaptation is not just a matter of visible traits: Many aspects of an animal or plant can be correctly called adaptations, though there are always some features whose function remains in doubt.
By using the term adaptation for the evolutionary process, and adaptive trait for the bodily part or function the productone may distinguish the two different senses of the word.
The other process is speciationin which new species arise, typically through reproductive isolation. An organism must be viable at all stages of its development and at all stages of its evolution. This places constraints on the evolution of development, behaviour, and structure of organisms.
The main constraint, over which there has been much debate, is the requirement that each genetic and phenotypic change during evolution should be relatively small, because developmental systems are so complex and interlinked.
However, it is not clear what "relatively small" should mean, for example polyploidy in plants is a reasonably common large genetic change.
Structural adaptations are physical features of an organism, such as shape, body covering, armament, and internal organization. Behavioural adaptations are inherited systems of behaviour, whether inherited in detail as instinctsor as a neuropsychological capacity for learning.
Examples include searching for foodmatingand vocalizations. Physiological adaptations permit the organism to perform special functions such as making venomsecreting slimeand phototropismbut also involve more general functions such as growth and developmenttemperature regulationionic balance and other aspects of homeostasis.
Adaptation affects all aspects of the life of an organism. The following definitions are given by the evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky: Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby an organism becomes better able to live in its habitat or habitats.
Adaptedness is the state of being adapted: An adaptive trait is an aspect of the developmental pattern of the organism which enables or enhances the probability of that organism surviving and reproducing.In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their evolutionary initiativeblog.comly, it is a state reached by the population during that process.
Thirdly, it is a phenotypic or adaptive trait, with a functional role in each individual organism, that is maintained and has been evolved by. Animal adaptation is very self initiativeblog.com partner and I came up with the theory that animal adaptation is animals making changes to live better in there environment.
What is Animal Adaptation? What is animal adaptation?
you might ask An adaptation is a genetic change, that helps an organism, such as a plant or animal, survive in its environment. Adaptation definition is - something that is adapted; specifically: a composition rewritten into a new form.
modification of an organism or its parts that makes it more fit for existence under the conditions of its environment: acclimation, acclimatization, accommodation, adaption, adjustment, conformation.
Visit the Thesaurus for More. Adaptations are simply traits that help an organism survive their environment so that they can successfully reproduce. A structural adaptation is a physical part of the organism that increases its reproductive success, either directly or indirectly.
An acclaimed film adaptation came in , with a starry cast that included Al Pacino, Jack Lemmon, Alec Baldwin, Alan Arkin, Ed Harris, Kevin Spacey and Jonathan Pryce.
In deserts, wherein there are extreme temperature fluctuation as well as water shortages, animals have the ability to alter their internal environment and develop behavioral or physiological adaptive strategies as well as morphological adaptation (“Plant and Animal Adaptation, ).