Both ruling in the first century of the Common Era, the Han dynasty peaking in the s and the Roman Empire in the s, these empires showed great military power, strived in economic trade, and their territories covered vast land. So how did these great empires find themselves plummeting to an unfortunate collapse? Although there are many similarities in the reasons for the desecration of these empires, there are also several contrasting reasons for the declines in economic trade, effects of the changing populations, and the failure of the political systems. The Roman and Han empires equally strived economically in trade.
At its peak, the Roman Empire held up to million people over a span of 1. Rome had conquered much of the known world. The Empire built 50, miles of roads, as well as many aqueducts, amphitheatres, and other works that are still in use today.
Our alphabet, calendar, languages, literature, and architecture borrow much from the Romans. How could such a powerful empire collapse?
The Roman Economy Trade was vital to Rome. It was trade that allowed a wide variety of goods to be imported into its borders: Trade generated vast wealth for the citizens of Rome.
However, the city of Rome itself had only 1 million people, and costs kept rising as the empire became larger. Administrative, logistical, and military costs kept adding up, and the Empire found creative new ways to pay for things.
Along with other factors, this led to hyperinflation, a fractured economy, localization of trade, heavy taxes, and a financial crisis that crippled Rome. Roman Debasement The major silver coin used during the first years of the empire was the denarius.
During the first days of the Empire, these coins were of high purity, holding about 4. However, with a finite supply of silver and gold entering the empire, Roman spending was limited by the amount of denarii that could be minted. This made financing the pet-projects of emperors challenging.
How was the newest war, thermae, palace, or circus to be paid for?
Roman officials found a way to work around this. With more coins in circulation, the government could spend more. And so, the content of silver dropped over the years.
Caracalla tried a different method of debasement. However, it had only the weight of 1. Each coin was a bronze core with a thin coating of silver. The shine quickly wore off to reveal the poor quality underneath.
The Consequences The real effects of debasement took time to materialize.
Adding more coins of poorer quality into circulation did not help increase prosperity — it just transferred wealth away from the people, and it meant that more coins were needed to pay for goods and services. At times, there was runaway inflation in the empire. For example, soldiers demanded far higher wages as the quality of coins diminished.
By AD, when there was only 0.
|The Roman Economy||Transformation The tradition positing general malaise goes back to Edward Gibbon who argued that the edifice of the Roman Empire had been built on unsound foundations to begin with.|
Only barbarian mercenaries were to be paid in gold. The Effects With soaring logistical and admin costs and no precious metals left to plunder from enemies, the Romans levied more and more taxes against the people to sustain the Empire.
The economy was paralyzed. By the end of the 3rd century, any trade that was left was mostly local, using inefficient barter methods instead of any meaningful medium of exchange. The Collapse During the crisis of the 3rd century A.
Dthere may have been more than 50 emperors.The Roman empire continued to be a power in the region for hundreds of years after the collapse, and there is some evidence that individual nutrition actually improved after centralized Roman control declined in .
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, "General Observations on the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West", Chapter 38 Alexander Demandt enumerated different theories on why Rome fell, and new ideas have emerged since. In ‘The History of Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire’, Edward Gibbon had a controversial theory.
He claimed the rise of Christianity contributed to the fall of Rome as it bred a ‘turn the other cheek’ mentality. One of the many factors that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire was the rise of a new religion, Christianity. The Christian religion, which was monotheistic, ran counter to the traditional Roman religion, which was polytheistic (many gods).
At different times, the Romans persecuted the. The Fall of the Roman Empire Could Be Linked To Many Different Aspects: Army, Personally I think that all these reasons are linked and headed by the decline of the Roman emperor. The deficient Emperor role led to the lacking military response to invasions,civil war and peasant uprisings.
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