Anarchy and knowledge essay

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Anarchy and knowledge essay

Sons Of Anarchy Essay

An Essay in Political and Social Criticism See also Matthew Arnold Criticism. Culture and Anarchy is a controversial Anarchy and knowledge essay work written by the celebrated Victorian poet and critic Matthew Arnold.

Composed during a time of unprecedented social and political change, the essay argues for a restructuring of England's social ideology. It reflects Arnold's passionate conviction that the uneducated English masses could be molded into conscientious individuals who strive for human perfection through the harmonious cultivation of all of their skills and talents.

A crucial condition of Arnold's thesis is that a state-administered system of education must replace the ecclesiastical program which emphasized rigid individual moral conduct at the expense of free thinking and devotion to community.

Much more than a mere treatise on the state of education in England, Culture and Anarchy is, in the words of J. Born the eldest son of Dr.

Thomas Arnold, a headmaster of Rugby and generally acknowledged as the innovator of the modern public school system in England, Arnold was inculcated with a liberal attitude toward education from an early age.

Matthew Arnold’s “Culture and Anarchy” | Free Essays -

During his formative years and as a student at Oxford, he embraced the reform-minded ideas of social thinker John Henry Newman. In at the age of thirty, Arnold was appointed Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools, a post he held for the next thirty-five years.

In his role as inspector, Arnold became intimately familiar with the disadvantages and inequalities inherent in the educational system from the favored aristocratic upper class to the ignored and impoverished lower class.

Moreover, in his official capacity Arnold toured numerous schools and universities on the Continent which Anarchy and knowledge essay already undergone extensive educational reforms.

His comparative experiences at home and abroad yielded such essays as The Popular Education of France, with Notices of That of Holland and SwitzerlandA French Eton, or Middle-Class Education and the Stateand Schools and Universities on the Continentall of which influenced the ideas which found expression in Culture and Anarchy.

Despite his best efforts to influence Parliament to initiate sweeping educational reform, it was not until Arnold appealed to the altruistic intellectual members of the English middle class with Culture and Anarchy that he began to gain a groundswell of support for his cause.

Ultimately, Arnold's proposals and arguments contributed to the passage of the Elementary Education Act of which mandated that a state-run public educational program should replace the current private system of learning in England.

Plot and Major Characters Although Arnold does not create specific fictional characters to express his ideas in Culture and Anarchy, he does infuse his essays with a narrative persona that can best be described as a Socratic figure. This sagacious mentor serves as a thematic link between each of the chapters, underscoring the importance of self-knowledge in order to fully engage the concept of pursuing human perfection.

This mentor also identifies and classifies three groups of people who comprise contemporary English society. The first group is the Barbarians, or the aristocratic segment of society who are so involved with their archaic traditions and gluttony that they have lost touch with the rest of society for which they were once responsible.

The second group—for whom Arnold's persona reserves his most scornful criticism—is the Philistines, or the selfish and materialistic middle class who have been gulled into a torpid state of puritanical self-centeredness by nonconforming religious sects.

The third group is the Populace, or the disenfranchised, poverty-stricken lower class who have been let down by the negligent Barbarians and greedy Philistines. For Arnold, the Populace represents the most malleable, and the most deserving, social class to be elevated out of anarchy through the pursuit of culture.

Major Themes Arnold introduces the principal themes of Culture and Anarchy directly in the essay's title. Culture involves an active personal quest to forsake egocentricity, prejudice, and narrow-mindedness and to embrace an equally balanced development of all human talents in the pursuit of flawlessness.

It is a process of self-discipline which initiates a metamorphosis from self-interest to conscientiousness and an enlightened understanding of one's singular obligation to an all-inclusive utopian society. This lack of purpose manifests itself in such social and religious defects as laissez faire commercialism and puritanical hypocrisy.

For Arnold, the myopic emphasis on egocentric self-assertion has a devastating impact on providing for the needs of the community; indeed, it can only lead to a future of increased anarchy as the rapidly evolving modern democracy secures the enfranchisement of the middle and lower classes without instilling in them the need for culture.

Inherent in Arnold's argument is the idea of Hebraism versus Hellenism. Hebraism represents the actions of people who are either ignorant or resistant to the idea of culture. Hebraists subscribe to a strict, narrow-minded method of moral conduct and self-control which does not allow them to visualize a utopian future of belonging to an enlightened community.

Conversely, Hellenism signifies the open-minded, spontaneous exploration of classical ideas and their application to contemporary society. Indeed, Arnold believes that the ideals promulgated by such philosophers as Plato and Socrates can help resolve the moral and ethical problems resulting from the bitter conflict between society, politics, and religion in Victorian England.

As serious as Arnold's message is, he elects to employ the device of irony to reveal his philosophical points to his readers.

Through irony, satire, and urbane humor, the author deftly entertains his readers with examples of educational travesties, he wittily exposes the enemies of reform and culture, and he beguiles his readers with self-deprecating humor in order to endear them to his ideas.

Critical Reception Since its publication inliterary scholars have generally regarded Culture and Anarchy as a masterpiece of social criticism.My foremost design in writing this Preface is to address a word of exhortation to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

In the essay which follows, the reader will often find Bishop Wilson quoted. These days, in the occasional university philosophy classroom, the differences between Robert Nozick's "Anarchy, State, and Utopia" (libertarianism) and John Rawls' "A Theory of Justice" (social liberalism) are still discussed vigorously.

Anarchy and knowledge essay

In order to demonstrate a broad spectrum of possible political philosophies it is necessary to define the outer boundaries, these two treatises stand. Civil Disobedience" and "Theory of Anarchy Essay. Henry Davd Thoreau’s “civil Disobedience” and Edward Abbey’s “Theory of Anarchy” both point out problems in government - Civil Disobedience" and "Theory of Anarchy Essay introduction.

Both Thoreau and Abby believe that the solution to this problem is to take a stand against the governments institutions and speak out against the. Paul Fereraband argues in his () essay on science that myth, selective storytelling, and rationalized scientific technique overlap.

This requires one to consider the relation between myth (or narrative) and the scientific method, specifically in indicting the latter of dabbling in the former. The answer to the essay question is to be written on separate paper.

We are fast verging to anarchy and confusion! How melancholy [sad] is the reflection, that in so short a space, we Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of social studies, write an essay in which you.

The following entry presents criticism of Arnold's essay, Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social Criticism (). See also Matthew Arnold Criticism. Culture and Anarchy is a.

Anarchy and knowledge essay
Sons Of Anarchy Essay