Equipment and tactics Personal equipment Police officers, whether plain-clothed or uniformed, carry a variety of equipment with them on service calls. Police in uniform carry much more equipment than those in plain clothes, and members of special operations teams, such as SWAT and crowd-control units, carry even more, sometimes including full body armour complete with helmet, leg pads, and shield. French National Police officer wearing a helmet and a radio.
The police play a primary role in the investigation. They are responsible for interrogating suspects and witnesses, and they carry out arrests, searches, and seizures. In Anglo-American legal systems the police perform investigations on their own authority, whereas on the Continent they act under… Police and society There is a remarkable historical, geographic, and organizational diversity in the activities of people who are, or have been, defined as police.
Police work has developed considerably from what it was centuries ago. As populations grew and informal institutions of socialization and social control—such as the family, schools, and the church—decreased in effectiveness, police became increasingly necessary. However, no uniform worldwide system of policing ever emerged.
Numerous factors help to explain the diversity of police activities and systems. For instance, if criminals use firearms, the police are likely to be armed, or if criminals use computers to commit crimes, the police may establish a special unit dedicated to investigating cybercrimes.
History also helps to explain this diversity; e. Population plays an important role as well; policing rural areas and villages vastly differs from policing large cities. Policing small communities Most people willingly obey most laws, whether a police officer is present or not. They comply with the laws because they consider them fair and because they believe that in the long run it is in their interest to observe them.
In all societies this system of informal rewards and punishments is the most potent aid to law enforcement, Compare and contrast two police officers it is strongest in small communities. The forces that order life in a small community thus make the task of the police much easier.
Police action is needed only when such informal controls have proved insufficient. This is why rural and sparsely populated areas are often policed by a single centralized—and often militarized—police force, even in countries that have a decentralized police system.
A single police organization operating under a unified command is more cost-effective and more operationally efficient than a bevy of independent small-town police forces. Since the territory to cover may be very large and characterized by difficult terrain, police in such regions must have the long-range mobility and adaptability that are characteristic of military forces.
In addition, the countryside has historically been policed by military organizations, as police forces were initially created in urban settings. The great exceptions to this model are the United Kingdom and the United States, which have long resisted police centralization.
Policing large societies In larger and more complex societies, informal institutions of social control are generally weaker, and, as a result, formal institutions are generally stronger. The relative weakness of informal controls is attributable to a number of factors.
In large societies people often deal with strangers whom they will never meet again, and in such circumstances there may be fewer informal rewards for honesty or fewer informal penalties for dishonesty.
Such communities tend also to be more technologically advanced, which leads to the adoption of new laws, such as those regulating the licensing and operation of automobiles and those concerned with commerce conducted on the Internet see e-commerce.
Because some of these new laws may not have the same moral significance as older laws criminalizing violence, theft, or fraudpeople may feel less of an obligation to obey them.
Moreover, when new laws are created, crime increases almost necessarily. There is thus a danger that people who are convicted of having violated a new law may feel aggrieved and in the future be less willing to cooperate with the police or to obey the law when they are not being observed.
Finally, as societies grow, it becomes more difficult for people to place the public interest ahead of their private interests in circumstances where the two may conflict. The desire for efficiency lends itself to the establishment of centralized police forces, which can take advantage of coordination and savings in training, organization, and service delivery.
However, such forces face the problem aptly summarized by the Latin question Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? In some democratic countries, particularly the United States and, to a lesser extent, Great Britain, citizens have traditionally believed that the existence of a national police force would concentrate too much power in the hands of its directors.
They have believed that local communities could not hold a national police force accountable for abuses of power, and they have feared that the national government could use such a police force to keep itself in power illegitimately.
For those and other reasons, some democratic countries favour organizing police forces on a local basis. Decentralization brings the police closer to the community, and it often succeeds in tailoring policing to the specific needs of a community.
However, a decentralized police apparatus tends to hinder the flow of intelligence between the various components of the system. Another drawback of a system of accountability to local government is that the narrow relationship between the police and their political overseers may facilitate the corruption of both parties.
The need for police accountability is made evident by the great power that police forces wield over the lives, liberties, safety, and rights of citizens. Governments empower police to compel individuals to comply with the law; they allow officers to stop, search, detain, cite, and arrest citizens and to use physical and sometimes deadly force.
If police use those powers improperly, they can abuse the civil rights of the very citizens they are supposed to protect. Thus, it is critical that police be accountable for their policies and behaviour.
In democratic countries, accountability is ensured mainly by three means. Second, the courts are entrusted to safeguard the respect of due process by the police.On issues ranging from an assault rifle ban to racial progress in the U.S., the public and the police stand on opposite sides of a wide attitudinal divide.
At the same time, majorities of police officers and the public favor the use of body cameras, favor relaxing some restrictions on marijuana, and. TOP. Opinion. WARREN, C.J., Opinion of the Court. MR. CHIEF JUSTICE WARREN delivered the opinion of the Court. The cases before us raise questions which go to the roots of our concepts of American criminal jurisprudence: the restraints society must observe consistent with the Federal Constitution in prosecuting individuals for crime.
INTRODUCTORY NOTE BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS. At the request of the Government of British Guiana, the International Commission of Jurists appointed a Commission of Inquiry to investigate and make recommendations in regard to certain problems concerning racial balance in .
The name originates from a Provisional Government decree dated April 17, , and from early Soviet history, when both the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks intended to associate their new law enforcement authority with the self-organization of the people and to distinguish it from the czarist initiativeblog.com militsiya was reaffirmed on .
Behind the Badge 6. Police views, public views. By Rich Morin, Kim Parker, Renee Stepler and Andrew Mercer. Police and the public hold sharply different views about key aspects of policing as well as on some major policy issues facing the country.
Return to Table of Contents. The Evolution and Development of Police Technology. Introduction "Those were desperate times for policemen in a hostile country with unpaved streets and uneven sidewalks, sometimes miles from the police station, with little prospects of assistance in case of need.