Differences in cardiovascular fitness that effect

Some measures are particularly relevant to reducing the risk for diabetes; these are listed below:

Differences in cardiovascular fitness that effect

The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 14 3 Assessing Body Composition The search for valid methods of measuring body composition that are practical and inexpensive is an ongoing process for exercise scientists and nutritionists. Standard age-height-weight tables derived from life insurance data often incorrectly indicate individuals to be overweight.

Some practical methods of measuring body composition include skinfolds, circumference girth measures, hydrostatic weighing, bioelectrical impedance, and near-infrared interactance. Other advanced methods discussed in research journals include isotope dilution, neutron activation analysis, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

This error factor may be increased dramatically due to the skill or lack of it of the technician taking the measurements. The following sections will focus on three body fat measurement techniques that are often accessible to fitness professionals: Hydrostatic Weighing Hydrostatic weighing is a valid, reliable and widely used technique for assessing body composition.

Cardiovascular fitness - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

It has been labeled the "Gold Standard" or criterion measure of body composition analysis. It is based on Archimedes' principle. This principle states that an object immersed in a fluid loses an amount of weight equivalent to the weight of the fluid which is displaced by the object's volume.

This principle is applied to estimate the body volume and body density of individuals. Since fat has a lower density than muscle or bone, fatter individuals will have a lower total body density than leaner individuals. As the person is being submerged, the air in the lungs must be exhaled completely.

The air remaining in the small pockets of the lungs following a maximal expiration is referred to as the residual lung volume. The residual lung volume may be determined using a number of laboratory techniques or it is often estimated using age, height, and gender-specific equations.

Once your body weight, the underwater weight, and the residual lung volume are known, total body density may be calculated. From the total body density, the percent body fat can be estimated using the appropriate age-gender equation.

One limitation of hydrostatic weighing is that it is based on the two- component model fat and fat-free mass which assumes when calculating total body density that the relative amounts and densities of bone, muscle, and water comprising the fat-free mass are essentially the same for all individuals, regardless of age, gender, race or fitness level.

It is now known that this is not the case. For instance, the fat-free body density of young Black men is greater than that of white men. Because of this, the lean body mass is overestimated and the body fat is underestimated for many Blacks.

Also, after age 45 to 50, substantial changes in bone density, especially in women, invalidate the use of an assumed constant value for fat-free body density when converting total body density to percentage of body fat. This is why age and gender specific equations need to be used for estimating body fat.

As researchers learn more about age-related changes in bone mineral, hydrostatic weighing will eventually provide a more accurate prediction of body fat for older men and women.

Bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA is based on the fact that the body contains intracellular and extracellular fluids capable of electrical conduction.

A non-detectable, safe, low-level current flows through these intracellular and extracellular fluids. Since your fat-free body weight contains much of your body's water and electrolytes, it is a better conductor of the electrical current than the fat, which contains very little water.

So this technique is essentially an index of total body water, from which fat-free mass is estimated. The popularity of the BIA method has grown significantly over the last few years because it is painless, quick, and easy to administer the test.

Differences in cardiovascular fitness that effect

To take the test, you lie on a testing table or floor and electrodes are attached to your hands and feet. You do not feel a thing as the current passes through your body.

Average time for administering this test is about 10 minutes. No eating or drinking within 4 hours of the test 2. No exercise within 12 hours of the test 3.

Urinate within 30 minutes of the test 4. No alcohol consumption within 48 hours of the test 5. There is a tendency for BIA to overestimate percent body fat in very lean clients and underestimate body fat in obese clients. All in all, if the guidelines for testing are followed, the BIA method is a satisfactory method for assessing body composition of most people.

Skinfold Method The skinfold method of measuring body fat is a practical, economical, and administratively feasible field technique for body composition analysis. It involves measuring the skinfold subcutaneous fat thickness at specific sites of the body.

Most equations use the sum of at least three skinfolds to estimate body density from which body fat may be calculated. Skinfold measurement does not require expensive equipment and it can be routinely incorporated into many health promotion settings.63 Physiologic Responses and Long-Term Adaptations to Exercise is generally much higher in these patients, likely owing to a lesser reduction in total peripheral resistance.

A How To article about learning to achieve an aerobic effect. How to Achieve an Aerobic Effect. The word aerobic is defined as "with oxygen" and references the use . The high prevalence of obesity is a costly burden on the U.S. health care initiativeblog.comg a subset of the population that is resilient to the effects of obesity on cardiovascular outcomes is of great interest to focus limited resources on those most at risk and to develop .

Health practitioners universally agree that too much body fat is a serious health risk. Problems such as hypertension, elevated blood lipids (fats and cholesterol), diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, respiratory dysfunction, gall bladder disease, and some joint diseases are all related to.


Three types of blood vessels can be differentiated. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, and veins carry blood toward the heart. Capillaries are the smallest links between arteries and veins and are formed by small arteries, called arterioles, branching out to become progressively smaller in diameter.

The cardiovascular fitness hypothesis proposes that cardiovascular (i.e., “aerobic”) fitness is the physiological mediator that explains the relationship between physical exercise and improved cognitive performance.

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