By Early Modern Englishmany nouns were capitalized, and the earth became and often remained the Earth, particularly when referenced along with other heavenly bodies.
Initial results[ edit ] After completing the analysis of the full land temperature data set, consisting of more than 1. The Berkeley Earth study did not assess temperature changes in the oceans, nor try to assess how much of the observed warming is due to human action.
The data sets and programs used to analyze the information, and the papers undergoing peer review were also made available to the public.
The team's initial conclusions are the following: The study also found that while stations considered "poor" might be less accurate, they recorded the same average warming trend. The Berkeley Earth group estimates that over the past 50 years the land surface warmed by 0.
The team scientific director stated that " The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation AMO has played a larger role than previously thought. The group uses an algorithm that attaches an automatic weighting to every data point, according to its consistency with comparable readings.
The team claims this approach allows the inclusion of outlandish readings without distorting the result and standard statistical techniques were used to remove outliers. The methodology also avoids traditional procedures that require long, continuous data segments, thus accommodating for short sequences, such as those provided by temporary weather stations.
This innovation allowed the group to compile an earlier record than its predecessors, starting frombut with a high degree of uncertainty because at the time there were only two weather stations in America, just a few in Europe and one in Asia.
For example, when the study team was announced, Anthony Wattsa blogger who popularized several of the issues addressed by the Berkeley Earth group study, expressed full confidence in the team's methods: I'm prepared to accept whatever result they produce, even if it proves my premise wrong.
That lack of strings attached to funding, plus the broad mix of people involved especially those who have previous experience in handling large data sets gives me greater confidence in the result being closer to a bona fide ground truth than anything we've seen yet. Watts spoke to The New York Times, which wrote: He also noted that the report had not yet been peer-reviewed and cited spelling errors as proof of sloppiness.
James Hansena leading climate scientist and head of NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies commented that he had not yet read the research papers but was glad Muller was looking at the issue.
He said "It should help inform those who have honest scepticism about global warming. These initial findings are very encouraging and echo our own results and our conclusion that the impact of urban heat islands on the overall global temperature is minimal.
There is very substantial value in having multiple groups looking at the same problem in different ways. Berkeley Earth has three program areas of work: He said their analysis showed that average global land temperatures had increased by 2.
His opening paragraph stated: Call me a converted skeptic.
Three years ago I identified problems in previous climate studies that, in my mind, threw doubt on the very existence of global warming. Last year, following an intensive research effort involving a dozen scientists, I concluded that global warming was real and that the prior estimates of the rate of warming were correct.
I'm now going a step further: Humans are almost entirely the cause.Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory scientists scrutinize the earth from its deepest interior to the outer reaches of its atmosphere on every continent and in every ocean, their . Scientists and researchers at AC4's Sustainable Peace project are studying the underlying conditions of peaceful societies around the world.
Janice VanCleave's Earth Science for Every Kid: Easy Experiments that Really Work [Janice VanCleave] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. How are mountains formed? What makes the air we breathe?
What causes the ocean waves? Now you can learn the answers to these and other questions aboutthe earth. Eos: Earth and space science news and analysis from AGU.
Coverage of earth, planets, geology, atmosphere, volcanoes, climate and natural disasters. Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor initiativeblog.coming to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over billion years ago.
Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural initiativeblog.com revolves around the Sun in days, a period known as an Earth year.
Introduction The earth — think it's solid as a rock? Our planet might seem fixed and rigid, but a closer look reveals that it is constantly shifting under our feet.