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The addition of heat reduces the viscosity of the oil phase allowing more rapid settling velocities in accordance with Equation It also has the effect of dissolving the small crystals of paraffin and asphaltenes and thus neutralizing their effect as potential emulsifiers.
Adding heat can cause a significant loss of the lower boiling point hydrocarbons light ends. The molecules leaving the oil phase may be vented or compressed and sold with the gas.
Even if they are sold with the gas, there will be probably be a net loss in income realized by converting liquid volume into gas volume. Figure shows the amount of shrinkage that may be expected.
Increasing the temperature at which treating occurs also has the disadvantage of making the crude oil that is recovered in the storage tank heavier and thus decreasing its value.
Because the light ends are boiled off, the remaining liquid has a lower API gravity. Figure shows the API gravity loss for a typical crude oil. Increasing the temperature may lower the specific gravity at treater operating pressure of both the oil to be treated and the water that must be separated from it.
However, depending on the properties of the crude it may either increase or decrease the difference in specific gravity as shown in Figure Finally, it takes fuel to provide heat and the cost of fuel must be considered.
Thus, while heat may be needed to adequately treat the crude, the less heat that is used, the better. The gas liberated when crude oil is heated may create a problem in the treating equipment if the equipment is not properly designed.
In vertical heater- treaters and gunbarrels the gas rises through the coalescing section.
If much gas is liberated, it can create enough turbulence and disturbance to inhibit coalescence. Perhaps more important is the fact that the small gas bubbles have an attraction for surface active material and hence for the water droplets.
The bubbles thus have a tendency to keep the water droplets from settling and may even cause them to carry-over to the oil outlet. The usual oil field horizontal heater-treater tends to overcome the gas liberation problem by coming to equilibrium in the heating section before introducing the emulsion to the settling-coalescing section.
Some large crude processing systems use a fluid-packed, pump-through system that keeps the crude well above the bubble point. Top-mount degassing separators above electrostatic coalescers have been used in some installations.
If properly and prudently done, heating an emulsion can greatly benefit water separation. However, if a satisfactory rate of water removal can be achieved at the minimum temperature delivered into a process, there may be no reason to suffer the economic penalties associated with adding heat.
Posts related to Temperature Effects on Separation Process.API OIl/WAter SePArAtOrS Applications • Oil/water separation • Solids/grit removal • Refinery wastewater • Petrochemical plants • Terminal and barge wastewater • Power plant operations • Remove oil from wastewater Monroe Environmental® is the leading source for API Separator design, engineering, and manufacturing services.
API An API Oil in Water Separator is a channel system designed to provide quiescent flow conditions. The quiescent flow conditions created by the separator allow the free oil to rise toward the water surface then coalesce into a separate oil phase above the liquid to be processed.
UFA-AC Ultraaqua Autoclean Oil/Water Emulsions Separator Donaldson has developed the Ultraaqua for the processing of stable oil/water emulsions of compressed air condensate, and can guarantee a filtrate quality of better than 5 ppm. The Oil Water Separator Market report gives the principle locale, economic situations with the item value, benefit, limit, generation, supply, request and market development rate and figure and so on.
The trends utilized in the oil water separator market is the removal of oil, grease, and other hydrocarbons by coalescing methods, which force oil droplets to be impinged on the surface area.
Gravity-based separators operate by putting fluid velocity and its corresponding pressure in control.
3 are extracts from API Publication gives the design calculations for API separators. Oil-water separation theory is based on the rise rate of the oil globules (vertical velocity) and its relationship to the surface-loading rate of the separator.
the maximum wastewater flow Appendices 5. Appendix deals with parallel plate.