What was left of the Roman Empire was ruled by the emperor in Constantinople. The city of Constantinople, built on a peninsula surrounded by three bodies of water: People spoke Greek and wore Greek-styled clothing. The emperors and empresses wore beautiful silk and purple-dyed clothing, with expensive slippers.
Imperial Vestment Justinian I, depicted on an AE Follis coin Justinian saw the orthodoxy of his empire threatened by diverging religious currents, especially Monophysitismwhich had many adherents in the eastern provinces of Syria and Egypt.
Monophysite doctrine, which maintains that Jesus Christ had one divine nature or a synthesis of a divine and human nature, had been condemned as a heresy by the Council of Chalcedon inand the tolerant policies towards Monophysitism of Zeno and Anastasius I had been a source of tension in the relationship with the bishops of Rome.
Justin reversed this trend and confirmed the Chalcedonian doctrine, openly condemning the Monophysites. Justinian, who continued this policy, tried to impose religious unity on his subjects by forcing them to accept doctrinal compromises that might appeal to all parties, a policy that proved unsuccessful as he satisfied none of them.
The empress Theodora sympathized with the Monophysites and is said to have been a constant source of pro-Monophysite intrigues at the court in Constantinople in the earlier years. In the course of his reign, Justinian, who had a genuine interest in matters of theology, authored a small number of theological treatises.
On her right side stands Justinian, offering a model of the Hagia Sophia. On her left, Constantine I presents a model of Constantinople. As in his secular administration, despotism appeared also in the Emperor's ecclesiastical policy.
He regulated everything, both in religion and in law. At the very beginning of his reign, he deemed it proper to promulgate by law the Church's belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation ; and to threaten all heretics with the appropriate penalties;  whereas he subsequently declared that he intended to deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy of the opportunity for such offense by due process of law.
He neglected no opportunity for securing the rights of the Church and clergyfor protecting and extending monasticism. He granted the monks the right to inherit property from private citizens and the right to receive solemnia or annual gifts from the Imperial treasury or from the taxes of certain provinces and he prohibited lay confiscation of monastic estates.
Although the despotic character of his measures is contrary to modern sensibilities, he was indeed a "nursing father" of the Church. Both the Codex and the Novellae contain many enactments regarding donations, foundations, and the administration of ecclesiastical property; election and rights of bishops, priests and abbots; monastic life, residential obligations of the clergy, conduct of divine service, episcopal jurisdiction, et cetera.
Justinian also rebuilt the Church of Hagia Sophia which cost 20, pounds of gold the original site having been destroyed during the Nika riots.
The new Hagia Sophia, with its numerous chapels and shrines, gilded octagonal dome, and mosaicsbecame the centre and most visible monument of Eastern Orthodoxy in Constantinople. Religious relations with Rome[ edit ] Consular diptych displaying Justinian's full name Constantinople From the middle of the 5th century onward, increasingly arduous tasks confronted the emperors of the East in ecclesiastical matters.
Justinian entered the arena of ecclesiastical statecraft shortly after his uncle's accession inand put an end to the Acacian schism. Previous Emperors had tried to alleviate theological conflicts by declarations that deemphasized the Council of Chalcedonwhich had condemned Monophysitismwhich had strongholds in Egypt and Syria, and by tolerating the appointment of Monophysites to church offices.
The Popes reacted by severing ties with the Patriarch of Constantinople who supported these policies. Emperors Justin I and later Justinian himself rescinded these policies and reestablished the union between Constantinople and Rome. This new-found unity between East and West did not, however, solve the ongoing disputes in the east.
Justinian's policies switched between attempts to force Monophysites to accept the Chalcedonian creed by persecuting their bishops and monks — thereby embittering their sympathizers in Egypt and other provinces — and attempts at a compromise that would win over the Monophysites without surrendering the Chalcedonian faith.
Such an approach was supported by the Empress Theodora, who favoured the Monophysites unreservedly. In the condemnation of the Three Chaptersthree theologians that had opposed Monophysitism before and after the Council of Chalcedon, Justinian tried to win over the opposition.
At the Fifth Ecumenical Councilmost of the Eastern church yielded to the Emperor's demands, and Pope Vigiliuswho was forcibly brought to Constantinople and besieged at a champel, finally also gave his assent.
However, the condemnation was received unfavourably in the west, where it led to new albeit temporal schism, and failed to reach its goal in the east, as the Monophysites, remained unsatisfied; all the more bitter for him because during his last years he took an even greater interest in theological matters.
Authoritarian rule[ edit ] Justinian was one of the first Roman Emperors to be depicted wielding the cross on the obverse of a coin.
Justinian's religious policy reflected the Imperial conviction that the unity of the Empire presupposed unity of faith, and it appeared to him obvious that this faith could only be the orthodox Nicaean.
Those of a different belief were subjected to persecution, which imperial legislation had effected from the time of Constantius II and which would now vigorously continue.
The Codex contained two statutes  that decreed the total destruction of paganismeven in private life; these provisions were zealously enforced. Contemporary sources John MalalasTheophanesand John of Ephesus tell of severe persecutions, even of men in high position.History remembers Emperor Justinian for his reorganization of the government of the Roman Empire and his codification of the laws, the Codex Justinianus, in A.D.
Justinian Family Data. An Illyrian, Justinian was born Petrus Sabbatius in A.D. in Tauresium, Dardania (Yugoslavia), a Latin-speaking area of the Empire. Justinian was an emperor of the Byzantine Empire from to Justinian I, also known as Justinian the Great, is known for creating a set of laws called the Justinian Code.
Justinian I was born a barbarian in Tauresium. His uncle, Justin I, adopted him and moved him to Constantinople where he. Justinian II “the Slit-nosed” ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire in two spells: from to CE and then again from to. Code of Justinian: Code of Justinian, collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I in – CE.
Nov 04, · Justinian is one of the most (if not the most) overrated Roman emperors because of rather superficial achievements or achievements that are the equivalent of muscle-flexing the wealth and prosperity of the empire.
Justinian: The Last Roman Emperor [G. P. Baker] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Justinian ( A.D.), who ruled the Roman Empire from his capital in Constantinople, was, along with his wife Empress Theodora/5(7).