Nearly 30 million people at risk About 13 million people infected Geography Onchocerciasis River blindness is almost exclusively confined to West and Central Africa, although there are localized infections in Yemen and some South American countries. Transmission Onchocerciasis River blindnessLymphatic filariasis Elephantiasis and Loiasis Loa loa infection are all caused by parasitic filarial nematode worms that are transmitted between humans by blood-sucking insects.
Received May 20; Accepted Jul Abstract Lymphatic filariasis, transmitted by mosquitoes is the commonest cause of lymphedema in endemic countries. Among million infected people in 83 countries, up to 16 million have lymphedema.
Microfilariae ingested by mosquitoes grow into infective larvae. These larvae entering humans after infected mosquito bites grow in the lymphatics to adult worms that cause damage to lymphatics resulting in dilatation of lymph vessels.
This earliest pathology is demonstrated in adults as well as in children, by ultrasonography, lymphoscintigraphy and histopathology studies. Once established, this damage was thought to be irreversible.
This lymphatic damage predisposes to bacterial infection that causes recurrent acute attacks of dermato-lymphangio-adenitis in the affected limbs. Attacks of dermato-lymphangio-adenitis aggravates lymphatic damage causing lymphedema, which gets worse with repeated acute attacks.
Elephantiasis is a late manifestation of lymphatic filariasis, which apart from limbs may involve genitalia or breasts.
In selected cases surgery is helpful. Lymphatic filariasis, Lymphatic dilatation, Lymphedema, Elephantiasis, Dermato-lymphangio-adenitis, Entry lesions, Limb-hygiene INTRODUCTION Lymphatic filariasis LF is a vector-borne disease of the tropical and subtropical countries due to infection by filarial worms, which invade the lymphatics of humans initiating pathological changes leading to later filarial disease manifestations.
The genera of mosquitoes transmitting these parasites include Culex, Anopheles, Aedes or Mansonia. Globally, around million people in 83 countries are affected by this malady, which is ranked as the second most common cause of physical disability.
Among the debilitating vector-borne tropical diseases LF is next only to malaria [ 1 ]. In endemic countries LF is the commonest cause of lymphedema, which mostly affects the lower limbs, sometimes the arms, less commonly male genitalia, and rarely breasts and genital region in females.
It is estimated that up to 16 million people in endemic countries have filarial lymphedema [ 2 ]. Several studies have documented the physical, social, psychological, sexual, and economical problems resulting not only from the deformities caused by LF but also from the acute febrile episodes associated with this disease [ 3 - 5 ].
A number of new advances in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease, the biology of the parasite, and development of newer methods for diagnosis and better knowledge of the action of safe and effective chemotherapeutic agents have all contributed to the notion that LF can be eliminated from endemic countries.
Identified as one among only 6 potentially eradicable diseases, LF is now targeted for global elimination as a public health problem, based on the World Health Assembly resolution in the year [ 67 ].
This Global Programme for Elimination of LF GPELF launched in has 2 arms consisting of a interruption of transmission by annual mass drug administration MDA to prevent LF infection in the communities and b alleviation of disability in those who already have the disease [ 8 ].
In this article the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of lymphedema due to filariasis and its management are discussed.Diagnosis of elephantiasis is made based upon a detailed medical history, meticulous clinical evaluation and identification of characteristic symptoms.
Microscopic examination to find the microfilaria is the standard method for diagnosing active infection. Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. Most infected people are asymptomatic and will never develop clinical symptoms, despite the fact that the parasite damages the lymph system.
Lymphedema and elephantiasis are not indications for DEC treatment because most people with lymphedema are not.
The swelling and the decreased function of the lymph system make it difficult for the body to fight germs and infections.
These people will have more bacterial infections in the skin and lymph system. This causes hardening and thickening of the skin, which is called elephantiasis.
Elephantiasis is a syndrome caused by an obstruction of the lymphatic vessels, which results in swelling of the skin and tissues. Congenital elephantiasis.
Description, Causes and Risk Factors: Lymphatic filariasis is treated with antiparasitic medication, although recent studies of use of the antibiotic doxycycline show promise. Diagnosis of elephantiasis is made based upon a detailed medical history, meticulous clinical evaluation and identification of characteristic symptoms.
Microscopic examination to find the microfilaria is the standard method for diagnosing active infection. Infection with these worms is called "lymphatic filariasis" and over a long period of time can cause elephantiasis.
Lymphatic filariasis is a disease of underdeveloped regions found in South America, Central Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Caribbean.