In narrations, the most commonly used verb tenses in Spanish are the preterit and the imperfect. All this takes on special importance in narration of past actions, when both tenses often occur in the same story. Narrating a story entails both describing a setting habitual actions, atmosphere, places and people and recounting a plot or a series of events, actions, changes of feelings or thoughts. In general, all stories have a well delineated plot line of events, the foreground, and a background of supporting details and description.
Each cluster of knots is a digit, and there are three main types of knots: A number is represented as a sequence of knot clusters in base Digits in positions for 10 and higher powers are represented by clusters of simple knots e. Digits in the "ones" position are represented by long knots e.
Because of the way the knots are tied, the digit 1 cannot be shown this way and is represented in this position by a figure-of-eight knot. Zero is represented by the absence of a knot in the appropriate position.
11) Write a short story. Try to make it as descriptive as possible while also including lots of action verbs to move the story along. Have fun with it; it can be a crazy story with a creative twist or unexpected angle! You’ll certainly improve your Spanish reading comprehension if you write enough of . Oct 30, · How to Write a Spanish Letter In this Article: Article Summary Opening Your Letter Crafting the Body of Your Letter Closing Your Letter Community Q&A If you're writing to someone you don't know personally, formal language is important in Spanish initiativeblog.com: K. Learn Spanish with our free online tutorials with audio, cultural notes, grammar, vocabulary, verbs drills, and links to helpful sites.
Because the ones digit is shown in a distinctive way, it is clear where a number ends. One strand on a quipu can therefore contain several numbers. For example, if 4s represents four simple knots, 3L represents a long knot with three turns, E represents a figure-of-eight knot and X represents a space: The number would be represented by 7s, 3s, E.
The number would be represented by 8s, X, 4L. The number followed by the number 51 would be represented by 1s, X, 7L, 5s, E. This reading can be confirmed by a fortunate fact: For instance, a cord may contain the sum of the next n cords, and this relationship is repeated throughout the quipu.
Sometimes there are sums of sums as well. Such a relationship would be very improbable if the knots were incorrectly read. They are still composed of digits, but the resulting number seems to be used as a code, much as we use numbers to identify individuals, places, or things.
Lacking the context for individual quipus, it is difficult to guess what any given code might mean.
Other aspects of a quipu could have communicated information as well: This would be an especially important discovery as there is no surviving record of written Quechua predating the Spanish invasion. Possible reasons for this apparent absence of a written language include an actual absence of a written language, destruction by the Spanish of all written records, or the successful concealment by the Inca peoples of those records.
Making the matter even more complex, the Inca 'kept separate "khipu" for each province, on which a pendant string recorded the number of people belonging to each category. It could be a toponym for the city of Puruchuco near Limaor the name of the quipu keeper who made it, or its subject matter, or even a time designator.
Beynon-Davies considers quipus as a sign system and develops an interpretation of their physical structure in terms of the concept of a data system. This manuscript consists of nine folios with Spanish, Latinand ciphered Italian texts.
Owned by the family of Neapolitan historian Clara Miccinelli, the manuscript also includes a wool quipu fragment. Miccinelli believes that the text was written by two Italian Jesuit missionaries, Joan Antonio Cumis and Giovanni Anello Oliva, around —, and Blas Valeraa mestizo Jesuit sometime before Along with the details of reading literary quipus, the documents also discuss the events and people of the Spanish conquest of Peru.
However, the authenticity of these documents is highly questioned, and they seem to be inspired freely by a writing of Prince San Severo. In the text of these documents, Cumis states that there are quipus which accounted for uses other than accounting.
Since so many quipus were burned by the Spanish, very few remained for Cumis to analyze.
Following the analysis of the use of "Pacha Kamaq", the manuscript offers a list of many words present in quipus.An extensive list of short story competitions, including global & UK short story writing contests. Details on entry fees, deadlines, prize money & more.
Anyway, children's stories have great "catch phrases", "idioms", etc. So you really learn how they speak.
And they usually involve easy to understand subjects like visiting the fire station or going to the bathroom. I translated a spanish story about getting potty trained to my kids. Quipu (also spelled khipu), or talking knots, were recording devices fashioned from strings historically used by a number of cultures, particularly in the region of Andean South America..
Although similar systems were also used by the ancient Chinese and native Hawaiians, knotted string records are often generically referred to in English as quipus after the Quechua language term.
One effective way to use both versions is to read the story first in Spanish, and then read the English translation second to test your comprehension. After reading the Spanish story at least once, looking at both versions side-by-side can really get you ahead on learning how the sentence structures compare.
In general, the short stories found here tend to fit intermediate and lower-advanced level Spanish students, since the writing is typically modern, relevant to students and straightforward.
This recommended story is short and sweet, and depicts a creepy, mysterious scenario. Andrés chases a ball down an alley and stumbles across a strange secret. A lot has changed. You no longer need ink and paper to get something written and you also do not need to be an expert in Spanish to write a Spanish tale.
As long as you have the writing skills, you can get the article finished with a little bit of help. Get Writing. Decide what you want to write about.